Comparison - Inherit the Wind
What happens when people try to separate politics and religion? It is often the case in ancient civilizations that they weren't separated. Sometimes not separating the two is the easy way to go, because it is extremely difficult to separate the two. Such is a main point of Inherit the Wind.
Religion is something that resides deep within a person. Whether one likes it or not, your actions are based on your beliefs, and therefore religion is something that effects everything you do. Thus, to keep a religiously unbiased opinion in politics is nearly impossible. In Inherit the Wind, the fair trial of a man accused of teaching evolution to school children is corrupted as the town he is tried in is controlled by their religious beliefs rather than by logical thinking.
In Athens, the separation of religion and politics worked out well, and in Egypt and Mesopotamia there was no separation. So there is evidence that both separating and not separating politics and religion can work. However, Inherit the Wind presents the idea that the separation of the two is much harder than not separating them, but is necessary.
Then, every society is faced with a challenge. To find some way to separate religion and politics, while still keeping an unbiased view on politics.